Host microbe communication

They studied the small intestine, which is much less studied than the large intestine due to accesibility issues. However it would be more affected by diet, and is one of the bodies largest immune system sites and hugely contributes to health. Very little is known about the microbial community due to the accesibility issues. Its readily availible from people who have a ileocolonscopy(sp). but for healthy people a tube has to be snaked, entering through the mouth. They used a human intestinal chip to identify bact.

They quantified the functions of the microbial community. The  functions most over represented were co factor biosynthesis, especially biotin biosynthesis. Probiotics are not dominant species. Taking probiotics had a temporal effect,  after 7 hours 50% of the community was probiotic but after 24 hours they had mostly vanished. A double blind placebo controlled, although only with 8 people, showed coherent and conserved change in gene expression when given lactobacilli. These genes were among others coding for immune, metabolism, and ion homeostasis functions. Different strains had different effects on gene expression. Fasting had a dramatic effect on community. The microbiomic community has an amazing amount of flexibility, more so than is seen in the large intestine

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